Zentriforce – Academy

Related topics:

AUC is a first principle method. Therefore, the separation mechanism is well understood and extensively described. Please follow the link to a detailed description of AUC theory. 

Light scattering is a well defined effect. The physical properties of light scattering are used for several applications, such as dynamic and static light scattering. Please follow the link to a detailed description of light scattering theory.

With the increasing interest in gene therapy products also the interested in AF4 is growing. However, AF4 methods are comparably complex to develop. While most people use AF4 only as separation technique. We are experts in AF4 theory and use the theory to get more information out of the technique (e.g. particle size distributions). If you want to get more information about AF4 theory please follow this link.

In the last couple of years, the interest in the determination of predictive parameters within formulation development has grown. Interactions parameters provide valuable information for the prediction of molecular stability. These values are used in a “design of experiment” (DOE) approach to assist formulation developments. Please follow the link for more information.


General topics:

ZentriForce Pharma was founded as a service provider that specializes in hydrodynamic techniques for biopharmaceutical development. The focus lies on gene therapy products and biosimilarity studies. Follow the link to our company page for further information.

Please follow this link to our contact page

ZentriForce Pharma implemented a strict quality system to assure the highest tractability of results generated at our facility. We have a wide range of quality related standard operation procedures (SOPS) in place to assure the consistency and quality of our laboratory operations. Please follow the link to a description of our quality system. 

ZentriForce Pharma is your expert in analytical services, with focus on hydrodynamic techniques. Please follow the link to find out about our analytical services. 

ZentriForce Pharma offers a wide range of analytical techniques. Please follow the link to our analytical portfolio. 

ZentriForce Pharma is not merely an expert in analytical development. Our scientist are actively involved in further advances in the theory of hydrodynamic techniques. Follow the link to a detailed description of the theory behind our analytical services, including some of our own research

ZentriForce Pharma is always looking for motivated employees. Check out our career page for further information. 

ZentriForce Academy

ZentriForce Pharma was founded as a state-of-the-art contract research organization. We not only offer high quality analytical services on cutting-edge instrumentation; we also want to broadcast the value of hydrodynamic techniques to the biopharmaceutical community. The ZentriForce Academy is meant as a place where you can find information about the theory behind hydrodynamic techniques, their strengths and value for biopharmaceutical development, and potential applications.

Analytical Ultracentrifugation

For analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) two main applications are relevant for biopharmaceutical products. The first is sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrigugation (SV-AUC). In an SV-AUC experiment the rotation speed is high enough to reduce back diffusion of the analyte to a low level. In this case, the time dependent change of the concentration distribution is monitored. The data can be used to determine the number of fragments and aggregates in a sample, with additional characterization of all species in regard to sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight and frictional ratio. In the second application, which is sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultraentrifugation (SE-AUC), the rotation speed is reduced to a level that allows significant back diffusion. After an equilibrium between sedimentation and back diffusion is reached the molecular weight can be determined. Follow the link to our AUC theory page to learn more about analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) theory.

Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation 

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation is an orthogonal method to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC). While the other two techniques are limited to comparably small size ranges, AF4 methods can cover a spectrum from 1 nm up to 1 μm. Parameters that are assessible with AF4 include diffusion coefficient (hydrodynamic radius), molecular weight and radius of gyration. Please follow the link to our AF4 theory page for a more detailed description. 

Light Scattering Theory

Light scattering is a well described physical effect. The most interesting light scattering effect for biopharmaceuticals is the Rayleigh scattering. Rayleigh scattering described the predominantly elastic scattering of light by solutes much smaller that the wavelength of the scattered light. The physical effect of Rayleigh scattering is used for two major applications. Firstly, the detection of light scattering intensity for static light scattering (SLS) applications, and secondly, the monitoring of fluctuations of the light scattering signal for dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. Assessible parameters are hydrodynamic radius, polydispersity index (PDI), second osmotic virial coefficient (A22) and concentration dependence of diffusion coefficient (KD). Please follow the link to our light scattering theory page to learn more about light scattering theory, including MALLS.

AUC is a first principle method. Therefore, the separation mechanism is well understood and extensively described. Please follow the link to a detailed description of AUC theory. 

Light scattering is a well defined effect. The physical properties of light scattering are used for several applications, such as dynamic and static light scattering. Please follow the link to a detailed description of light scattering theory.

With the increasing interest in gene therapy products also the interested in AF4 is growing. However, AF4 methods are comparably complex to develop. While most people use AF4 only as separation technique. We are experts in AF4 theory and use the theory to get more information out of the technique (e.g. particle size distributions). If you want to get more information about AF4 theory please follow this link.

In the last couple of years, the interest in the determination of predictive parameters within formulation development has grown. Interactions parameters provide valuable information for the prediction of molecular stability. These values are used in a “design of experiment” (DOE) approach to assist formulation developments. Please follow the link for more information.

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